Aristotle’s Three Souls in Modern Science: Re-reading De Anima / Las tres almas de Aristóteles en la ciencia moderna: releyendo el De Anima

Grzegorz Piotr Karwasz

Resumen


Resumen

Los recientes avances en biofísica experimental –el desarrollo de técnicas de detección química ultrasensibles, como la espectroscopia de masas por transferencia de protones, la espectroscopia fotoacústica y la detección de señalización eléctrica (es decir, como una neurona)– han mostrado que también las plantas exhiben una especie de “anima”: detectan, reaccionan comunican. Los documentales elaborados sobre la vida social de los animales sensibilizaron a la opinión pública sobre las similitudes (aparentes) entre las sociedades humanas y las manadas de animales. Esto crea una seria confusión cultural: ¿los seres humanos difieren, desde el punto de vista biológico, del resto de la naturaleza "animada"? Una solución proviene de Aristóteles, quien definió los tres tipos de anima justo en los albores de la ciencia humana. Exploramos entre las ciencias naturales, la antropología, las neurociencias y la filosofía, incluida la ética, para mostrar cómo los anima humanos difieren de los demás, incluidos los prehumanos, y, por lo tanto, argumentamos que adquiere atributos únicos para ser un alma (inmortal).

Palabras clave: Irradiación, sacralización, modernidad, voluntarismo, subjetividad, posmodernidad.

 

Abstract

Recent progresses in experimental biophysics – the development of ultrasensitive chemical detection techniques, like proton-transfer mass spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, and detection of electric (i.e. neuron-like) signalling, showed that also plants exhibit a kind of „anima”: they detect, react, communicate. Elaborated documentaries on social live of animals sensitized the public opinion on (apparent) similarities between human societies and animal herds. This creates a serious cultural confusion: do humans differ, from the biological point of view from the rest of “animated” nature? A solution comes from Aristotle, who defined the three types of anima just at the dawn of human science. We explore between natural sciences, anthropology, neurosciences and philosophy, including ethics, to show how human anima differs from others, including pre-humans, and thus, we argue, acquires unique attributes to be an (immortal) soul.

Keywords: soul, neuroscience, eschatology, humans.

Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7090-3123

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17398/2340-4256.13.429


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Referencias


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